Sunday, October 24, 2021

Which animals are known as domestic animals?

 A species of animal bred by humans. The economic advantages derived from livestock breeding are of decisive importance for domestication. 

Domesticated animals have been a more reliable source of food than wild animals, whose populations near human settlements are rapidly declining as hunting techniques improve. All domestic animals are descended from wild ancestors and differ in behavior, appearance, internal organization and productivity due to human influence. Except for silkworms and bees, all domestic animals are vertebrates. Among the numerous wildlife species, certain parts belonging to various phyla, classes, orders, families, and genera have been domesticated.

Livestock includes cattle, sheep, goats, reindeer, camels, llamas, buffalo, yak, bunting, Gayla, horse, pig, dog, cat, rabbit, guinea pig, chicken, duck, geese, turkey, guinea fowl, pigeon, and bee It's possible. and Asian silkworms. Certain fish raised in ponds and aquariums, "decorative" birds (canaries and peacocks), and laboratory animals are close to livestock. Marla and Sicca constitute a transitional stage between wildlife
and livestock. Cage foxes, arctic foxes, sabers, minks and nutrias also fall into this category. These animals are in the domestication stage.

Science has not yet clarified the question of the wild ancestors of domestic animals. The ancestry of pigs is presumed to be a variety of wild boar (European, Indian and Mediterranean) and domestic sheep, as well as wild sheep found in Europe (Corsica, Sardinia), Asia Minor, Central Asia and Central Asia. Gastralgia and Macro are considered to be the ancestors of domestic goats, and Urus is considered to be the ancestor of cattle.

As for the origin of horses, many scientists agree that the main ancestors of horses are tarps and Archivalia’s horses. Red forest wild birds are considered the ancestors of many types of chickens.

The time and place where the first animals were domesticated is mainly determined through excavations of primitive settlements. Excavations show that dogs were domesticated before other animals in the Mesolithic Age. Pigs, sheep, goats, and cattle were domesticated during the Neolithic. And the horse was later domesticated. Since the Mesolithic and Neolithic Ages did not begin at the same time in different parts of the world, Neolithic cultures had not only the primary domestication of animals, but also the process of breeding already domesticated animals. The presumed region of origin of livestock is determined to a large extent by the zoological distribution of its wild ancestors. However, during the domestication period, it is easier to establish the place of origin and domestication of animals with a small ancestral range (e.g. yak, bunting, chicken). It is more difficult to establish the putative origin of animals such as cattle, dogs and pigs, whose wild ancestors are widely distributed in Asia, Africa, and Europe. It is clear that the areas of ancient origin of livestock were the Near East and Asia Minor, followed by the ancient cultural areas of the Nile, Tigris, Euphrates, Ganges, Indus, Amu Darya, and the Yellow Lake Basin. River and the upper Eni sei River, and other areas where agriculture first appeared.

Domestication of livestock probably occurred in several ways. It is the natural contact between people and animals and the forced domestication of young animals and adults.

Various breeds have been developed from many species of livestock that have been shaped under the influence of natural socioeconomic and historical conditions and have been adapted to meet diverse human needs. New environmental conditions and the influence of artificial selection have led to the gradual domestication of captive wild animals and the development of different breeds. At first, unconsciously, and later on purpose, humans tried to get more productivity from livestock. Thus, wild hens lay about 15 eggs per year, while some modern breed chickens lay about 300 eggs per year. Female wild cows produce only a few hundred kilograms of milk per lactation, while the most modern cows of bred breeds produce about 10,000 to 15,000 kilograms of milk. A wild pig that breeds once a year produces 5 to 6 piglets, whereas a modern improved bovine pig breeds twice a year, producing 25 to 30 piglets a year. Much work has been done to improve existing livestock breeds and to develop new breeds. Ranchers develop new breeds to meet the needs of agriculture and industry by crossbreeding historically established local breeds with their ancestry, selecting and breeding the best animals, and breeding them for young people (e.g., breeding through special feeding). are doing

Domestic species are bred for food, work, clothing, medicine, and many other uses. Plants and livestock must be raised and cared for by humans. Domesticated species are not wild.

Animals that are good for domestication often share certain characteristics:

·         They grow quickly and mature, making them efficient to cultivate.

·         They breed easily in captivity and can experience breeding seasons several times a year.

·         They eat a plant-based diet that makes their diet cheaper.

·         They adapt easily to harsh and changing conditions.

·         It is easier for humans to control because they live in groups or have ancestors who live in groups.

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