Monday, October 25, 2021

Cow is one of the most common farm animals in the world.

 Cows, with a common language, are domestic animals of the species Bos taurus, generally regardless of sex and age. Precisely, the name is given to mature females of several large mammals, including cattle, elk, elephants, sea lions, and whales.

The domestic cow is one of the most common farm animals in the world, and the English language has many words to describe these animals of different ages. A young cow is called a calf. Calves are also called veal calves and male calves. Cows are females without offspring. This term usually refers to an immature woman. But after giving birth to the first calf, the cow turns into a cow. Adult males are known as bulls. Many male cattle are castrated to reduce their aggressive tendencies and make them easier to treat. Castrated young males bred primarily for beef are called cows or cows, while castrated adult males commonly used for drafting purposes are known as bulls. A group of cattle, cattle, or relatives (an ancient term for one or more cattle) constitutes a herd. Since there is no single gender-neutral form in English, "cow" is used for both women and all domestic animals.


Cows are members of the Artiodactyl order. This neck includes mammals with uniform hooves, and cows have a distinctive forked hoof (derived from the nails on the two middle toes of each foot). Cattle belong to the Bovidae family (which also includes antelopes, sheep and goats), the subfamily Bovina (including buffalo and spiral-horned antelopes), and the cattle tribe (which includes cattle, bison and yak). The genus of Boss, whose name is derived from the Latin word for cow, Bos.

Natural history

The size and weight of cattle depend mainly on the breed. Mature males weigh 450-1,800 kg (1,000-4,000 lbs) and females weigh 360-1,100 kg (800-2,400 lbs). Both males and females have horns, and although in many breeds the horns can be short, they can grow to be incredibly large, such as the Texas Longhorn and African Ankole-Watusi cows. Some breeds are genetically plucked (no horns), and many other cows have their horns removed at a young age (ie, their horn cocoons are destroyed), making them easy to transport and safe to work with. Cows are known for their large milk-producing (mammary) glands known as nipples, which have four nipples (nipples).

Cows are well adapted to graze, have wide mouths and specialized teeth for eating rough vegetation. Adults have 32 teeth, but no upper incisors and canines. Instead, there are rubber pads used to pluck the grass. The molars have moon-shaped ridges that run parallel to the tongue, so chewing in a circular motion is effective.

The most specialized adaptation that cattle (and other ruminants) have is their huge four-chambered stomach that acts as a fermenter. Within the rumen, the largest chamber of the stomach, bacteria and other microorganisms digest resistant plant fiber (cellulose). To aid in this process, cows regurgitate and re-chew food several times before the food passes through the other gastric chambers to the rest of the digestive system. This process, called "rumination," helps sort out the digested material (substances that are digested) and absorb nutrients. By taking time to re-chew the food later, the cow does not have to chew well when eating. This allows them to quickly consume large amounts of grass while in the vulnerable under-head position needed for grazing.

Domestication and economic production

                              Cows are now the most commonly domesticated ungulates (hoofed mammals) and are found everywhere inhabited by humans. World cattle stocks in 2016 are estimated at about 1 billion, with India, Brazil and China having the largest populations (about a third of all cattle).

Cattle were first domesticated 8,000 to 10,000 years ago from Uros (B. taurus primigenius), wild cattle that spread throughout Eurasia. Wild aurochs became extinct in the early 17th century as a result of overfishing and habitat loss due to the expansion of agriculture (and livestock). Today, there are two types of widely known cattle. The East Asian zebu or humpback cattle (B. taurus indicus) and the Western Eurasian humpback cattle (B. taurus taurus) are easily crossed between the two forms, but.  Genetic studies have shown that both forms are descendants of Uros, but are products of independent domestication events.

Cows were initially domesticated as "universal" animals, used as draft animals, and also used in milk and meat products. Local specialization has resulted in the formation of different breeds or breeds that have been selectively bred to adapt to different climates or to emphasize valuable traits such as milk or meat production. Cows are arguably used in several different ways by humans as participants in sporting events (e.g. bullfights, bullfights, rodeo events) as a source of leather for clothing and other products. Cows can also be a measure of wealth and are worshiped as sacred in some religions (see The Holiness of the Cow). Historically, Nordics built houses next to or above cow stables and built "house stables" that were heated by the cow's body temperature.

All mammals produce milk for their young, but dairy cows, such as the well-known Holstein-Frisian cow, are bred specifically to produce large amounts of milk. It is much more common in the dairy industry as only women produce milk. Dairy bulls are generally large, powerful, aggressive and more difficult to maintain. As a result, much of modern dairy farming is artificial insemination, and bulls live in a small number of specialized facilities. Different breeds of cows are bred for certain characteristics of the milk, such as maximizing yield or producing a desired level of fat in the milk. Cows are an important part of many foods. In addition to being consumed directly as a beverage, it is used to make a variety of products including butter, yogurt, cheese and ice cream.

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